A grammar of the Hurrian language. Front Cover. Frederic William Bush. Brandeis University., – Hurrian language – pages. Dennis R. M. Campbell , Mood and Modality in Hurrian, , Frederic W. Bush , A Grammar of the Hurrian Language, , , grammar · hh. Hurrian language, extinct language spoken from the last centuries of the 3rd millennium bce until at least the latter years of the Hittite empire (c. –c.

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For the subject of a transitive verb, however, the ergative case is used. The meanings of many such suffixes have yet to be decoded. Sumerian, and Hurrian, and seven different scripts were used in Ugarit in this period: The first grammarr participle, the present participle, is characterised by the ending -iri or -iree. The preterite and future suffixes also include the suffix -twhich indicates intransitivity, but occurs only in truly intransitive forms, not in antipassive ones; in the present, this suffix never occurs.

While Hurrian could not combine multiple stems to form new stems, a large number of suffixes could be attached to existing stems to form new words.

Unfortunately, our editorial approach may not be able to accommodate all contributions. All cardinal numbers end in a vowel, which drops when an enclitic is attached. Nonetheless, it is clear that these represent dialects of grammqr language.

As can be seen from the table, Hurrian did not possess a voiced – voiceless distinction. Common terms and phrases 3rd person A-H Bil a-vowel agentive construction agentive suffix Akkad Akkadian Alalah allophones alphabetic texts ambiguity anaphoric appears assimilation Hkrrian brother-my-by Chagar Bazar cited class marker consonant consonantal context dative dative suffix dental fricative double writing dowry E.

After grammmar derivational suffix come those marking tense. The first full texts date to the reign of king Tish-atal of Urkesh and were found on a stone tablet accompanying the Hurrian foundation pegs known as the “Urkish lions. Transitivity and intransitivity are clearly indicated in the morphology; only transitive verbs take endings that agree with the person and number of their subject.

Hurrian language

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Moreover, suffixes can be added to the verb stem that modify its meaning, including valency -changing morphemes such as -an n — causative-ant applicative and -ukar reciprocative. Igor Diakonoff cites the suffix as -ido-but also located it before the slot of the transitivity vowel -o- — an interpretation which is also justified by the place of the corresponding suffix in the related Urartian language. Atom, smallest unit into which matter can be divided without the release of electrically charged particles.

This stem-final vowel disappears when certain endings are attached to it, such as case endings that begin with a vowel, or the article suffix. During the fifteenth century BC there was a struggle with Egypt over control of Syria, but shortly after BC, Hurrians and Egyptians made a peace treaty, and there were dynastic marriages.

The later Urartian language is thought to be descended from the same parent language as Hurrian. In the following century, attacks by the Sea Peoples brought a swift end to the last vestiges of the Hurrian language.

Hurrian language |

Our editors will review what you’ve submitted, and if it meets our criteria, we’ll add it to the article. At the bottom of the article, feel free to list any sources that support your changes, so that we can fully understand their context.

Hurriwn page was last edited on 4 Octoberat Hurrain proper rendering supportyou may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. Hurrian uses both enclitic and independent personal pronouns.

Hurrian language – Wikipedia

Another case, the so-called ‘e-case’, is very rare, and carries a genitive or allative meaning. The language of the Hurrians must have belonged to a widespread group of ancient Middle Eastern languages. Within noun phrasesthe noun regularly comes at the end. SA indicates morphemes added through Suffixaufnahmedescribed below. The third grammarr is for both these markers to occur see example 16 below. Retrieved 2 December The negative suffixes 7grammaar ergative person suffixes 8and the ergative number suffixes 9 merge in ways which are not entirely predictable, so the person endings are usually listed in separate singular and plural versions.

Contact our editors with your feedback. Thank you for your feedback. As has been outlined hurian, Hurrian transitive verbs normally take a subject in the ergative and an object in the absolutive except for the antipassive constructions, where these are replaced by the absolutive and the essive respectively. The suffix -o is dropped immediately after the derivational suffixes.


Adjectives, numbers, and genitive modifiers come before the noun they modify. Account Options Sign in. The Hurrian possessive pronouns cannot occur independently, but are only enclitic.

It remains, however, when a consonant-initial pronoun is attached: The enclitic particles can be attached to any word in hurgian sentence, but most often they are attached to the first phrase of the sentence or to the verb. Another Hurrian dialect is likely represented in several texts from Ugarit, but they are so poorly preserved that little can be said about them, save that spelling patterns used elsewhere to represent Hurrian phonemes are virtually ignored in them.

Retrieved from ” https: Short vowels are indicated by a simple CV-VC pairing. Keep Exploring Britannica Education. All Hurrian nouns end in a vowel. It is -a when the verb is intransitive, -i when the verb is in the antipassive and -o in the Mitanni letter, -i in transitive verbs. The ending for the third person singular is -ilanniand for the plural, -itanni. The form of the pronoun is dependent on that of the following morpheme.

It is irrelevant to the meaning of the sentence to which word in the sentence the enclitic pronoun is attached, so it is often attached either to the first phrase or to the verb. Hurrian has two numbers, singular and plural. The direct object and intransitive subject, when they are not represented by an independent noun, are expressed through the use of clitics, or pronouns see below. Indo-European languagesfamily of languages spoken in most of Europe and areas of European settlement and in much of Southwest and South Asia.

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